Volcan Villarrica

Villarrica from Pucon

An upset stomach kept me from sleeping well, I was feeling no better in the morning, and I was out of instant coffee. I unenthusiastically swallowed some hot chocolate for breakfast, then packed up, popped some metronidazol, and got on my way down the hill toward Pucon. It was a cold descent on the shady side of the range, and steep, making me glad I had not crossed this pass the other way. When I finally reached the valley floor, the views opened up and I was finally able to see the shape of the terrain. It reminded me a lot of the Skagit Valley in the North Cascades, with sparse, moldy farms on a flat valley bottom, and trees growing on impossibly-steep slopes to either side. There were even wild blackberries growing along the road, and some shops advertising salmon. The only incongruous element was the huge volcano rising behind me at valley’s head.

I tried some berries, then nectarines and fruit juice bought in one of the small tourist towns, but my appetite needed more time to recover. I decided to take a easy day, riding only about forty downhill miles to Pucon, then climb Villarrica from town on the next. There are several campgrounds in this sizable tourist town, which offers watersports on Lago Villarrica in the summer, and skiing on the volcano in the winter. I chose one that advertised WiFi, then settled in to catch up with the world. In classic Argentinian fashion, though I was now in Chile, the hot water was only on between 7:00 and noon, and 7:00 and midnight, so I waited impatiently to take a comfortable shower, then quickly ate and tried to sleep as my neighbors started their evening revels.

Lago Villarrica beach

I still felt off the next morning, so I slept in, then headed down to the beach to watch the humans frolic in the water. Evidently the Argentinians share the Mexican suspicion that humans sink like bricks, so swimmers — waders, really — were only allowed in a few roped-off sections. The rest of the lake was open to everything from jet-skis to sailboats, and there was even a paraglider overhead. It looked like they rented sailboats to amateurs, which made me wonder if there is a tug boat that comes around at the end of the day to collect them from the lake’s leeward shore.


Next I wandered around town running errands and playing tourist, drinking overpriced coffee at a German-themed cafe, then sat in the park to write postcards. Though it had no WiFi, the park was a pleasant place, with plenty of shade, various flowers, and hawks that strutted around the ground like pigeons. Finally I swung by the Conaf office, where I learned that I needed crampons, ice axe, boots, and… a printout of my AAC membership, which is just as ridiculous as a radio, but a whole lot cheaper. Fortunately I had a PDF of my AAC membership card on my phone, and no one noticed that it had recently expired. (It was nice knowing you, AAC, but the Schweizer Alpin-Club is probably a better deal for me this year.)

Riding toward volcano

I woke in the dark the next morning, and started riding for the ski area as soon as it was light enough for cars to see me clearly around 7:30. The paved road to the park boundary is brutally steep, so I was glad not to have the trailer, though I was still slow with my heavy pack full of mountaineering gear. I stopped in at the office, where I learned that the rain had scared off the other climbers, so I would not face the crowds I had seen in photos despite its being a weekend. I also learned that I needed a helmet (bike helmets are okay) and there is a $5.50 entry fee. Paperwork complete, I was off up the dirt, which was mostly less steep, but still a grind.

Ski Villarrica

I locked my bike to the trailhead sign, put on pants over my tights for decency, then took off hiking up the ski slopes. Following Biggar’s instructions, I followed the left-hand chairlift, thereby both finding a nice use trail and avoiding the Conaf guard parked at the top of the right-hand one. Signs in both Spanish and German at the top of this lift warned that it was Very Bad to continue without permission and proper gear.

Summit from glacier

The trail continued above, passing some weird concrete structure on the way to the glacier’s base. It had looked from town that there might be a dry route all the way to the summit, and there may be, but it would still at the very least involve a bit of sketchy scrambling on volcanic cliffs, then acres of spiky choss, so I changed into boots and crampons, took out my axe, then started up the glacier, following an old boot-pack. It had been awhile since I had used this gear, but I managed to keep the spiky side down. I was depressingly slow for the altitude, though, not sure whether to blame my recent intestinal bug or my generally run-down state.

The lunch crowd

Rounding the bend toward the upper glacier, I was surprised to see people in bright-colored clothing descending from the summit, and patted myself on the back for doing everything according to the rules. Reaching the top of the glacier, I found a dozen or so people hanging out eating lunch. They seemed to be one large guided group with at least two Americans, one Frenchwoman, and two local guides. I dumped my crampons and axe, made use of my French until it crashed into my Spanish, then continued to the summit.


Apparently the lava is high enough to be visible from the rim in early February, but by early March it had retreated and was well out of sight, though I thought I heard a couple of splashes. I certainly saw plenty of fumes, though, which smelled horrible and burned my eyes. Still, I made a full circuit of the summit crater to tag the highpoint (which is apparently verboten). Along the way, I got a good view of the large and crevassed south glacier, passed right by a few steam vents, and crossed some strange new rock that looked a bit like crevassed ice. I passed the tourists as they took off their crampons below the glacier, then had a nice scree-ski back to my bike. From there it was a fast, fun coast back to the campground, where I spent an unprecedented third night before continuing south.

Volcan Lanin

Lanin from trailhead

I got a reasonably early start around 7:30, both because Lanin is a decent-sized climb from the campground, and because the office would still be closed, so there would be little chance of a ranger seeing me out the window. The route starts out as a dirt road, much better than most I had been riding, then turns into a footpath. Along the way, there are various signs identifying the trail-side plants, and one listing the long list of required equipment to scale this dangerous summit. I had perhaps one of the required things, but I could also see from camp that the entire route was dry. I had turned on Strava for the first time in awhile, so while I did not go all-out for speed, I did jog a few parts of the path, and tried to maintain a reasonable effort.

The fish spine

After crossing the flats to the peak’s base, the route climbs an old lateral moraine called the “fish spine,” then switchbacks up toward the first refugio. The loose, sharp volcanic talus would be a nightmare to climb in its original state, but fortunately there is a good path, with the occasional sign or painted arrow to keep people on course. The refugio was more developed than I had expected, with several semi-permanent tents in addition to the orange building described in the guidebook. I did not see anyone outside, but tried to pass quickly, discreetly, and at a bit of a distance.

Route from yellow hut

I had expected distinct up- and down-trails, but there seemed to be just one general confusion of paths, none of which was particularly well-suited to travel in either direction. I passed the higher yellow hut, seemingly unused, then crossed a talus slope to reach some solid rock. It was the first such I had touched in a long time, and it felt good to do a bit of Colorado class 3 scrambling on the final climb. I passed two other groups on their way down, and was impressed that they managed not to knock loose rocks on me.

Villarrica and Quetrupillan from summit

The summit is a small, partly glacier-filled crater, with the highest point being somewhere in the crunchy ice on the far side. I easily walked over in my running shoes, taking care not to try to wedge a leg in a small crevasse crossing this bit of glacier. I took a look down the more glaciated south side, then tried to identify the surrounding volcanoes. Villarrica and Quetrupillan, along my intended route to the northwest, were closest and easiest to identify. Llaima is a high, sharp point farther north. The ones farther south were harder to pick out, both because of distance and because I was looking at their less-glaciated northern sides.

Eruption or dust?

I finished off my Mantecol in a sheltered spot, then took off back down the rock rib, walking quickly down the steep, sticky surface. I carefully avoided kicking rocks on the group I passed, returning their favor, then took a much quicker line down the scree to the right of the ridge, rejoining the trails where they crossed toward the yellow hut. I passed another group just above the lower refugio, then acted casual as I walked through camp. A ranger waved at me, and I waved back in a friendly way, kept my headphones in, and kept moving. I passed an army party on the trail below, resting and sweating in their fatigues and clunky boots, then found a nice down-path bypassing most of the switchbacks.

Down rib to Lago Tromen

Since it was hot out and I was wearing my mountaineering pack, I did not feel much like running the lower trail, but I occasionally jogged a bit out of boredom. I saw a ranger truck where the trail crosses the road, and waved to the owner as I passed. He seemed a bit more interested in talking to me than the previous one, though, and I saw another ranger ahead on the trail, possibly trying to prevent my escape. Had someone reported me? What kind of trouble would I face?

Clearly someone had turned me in — probably the ranger at the refugio — and they both had me dead to rights, and had gone to a remarkable amount of effort to hunt down a single rogue hiker. I told him I had only gone for a little hike up to the refugio, but he probably knew I was full of it, and in any case, no one is allowed above the flats without the required equipment, or at least without an arbitrary subset consisting of at least boots and a radio. I had seen people near the summit without the supposedly-also-required ice axes, with boots no better on any surface than my trail runners, but… rules are rules.

He made it clear that he was giving me a citation rather than a fine, then spent a long time filling in a form detailing my crimes. He unfortunately had forgotten to insert the carbon paper between two sheets, so he had to recopy most of it before finishing via carbon. He signed it, had me sign it, and then, for some reason, had two random passing tourists sign as witnesses after he explained to them that I was a criminal. Then we each took a copy and went our separate ways. It was a strange experience, but pleasant and effective as far as encounters with law enforcement go: there were no guns or threats, no extortionate fines, and I left feeling more ashamed than resentful. I still believe the rules for Lanin are utterly pointless, but would be more likely to follow them in the future. Not wanting to pay for the useless campground or see the rangers again, I packed up and made my way through customs, then passed a couple of lakes before finding a spot to camp on a side-road on the wet Chilean side of the mountains.

Among the Araucaria

First up-close sighting

I had another long leg south, but rather than continuing along 40 through the arid plains, I decided to travel closer to the mountains. Thanks to a map from the tourist office in Las Ovejas with up-to-date road conditions, I knew this would involve more dirt, but I hoped the scenery and easier water access would make up for it. Heading out of Las Lajas, I turned west toward the Pino Hachado pass, beginning a long, gentle climb out of the plains. The road roughly follows a river, and while it probably wouldn’t taste the best, it was nice to have easy access to water for a change.

Growing on columnar basalt

As the road climbs away from the river to avoid a canyon in the foothills, I noticed some strange-shaped trees on the surrounding basalt hills. They looked a bit like Ponderosa pines, with straight trunks and horizontal branches, but there was something off with them. The branches drooped and seemed greener, and some of the trees were a bit like palms, with tall, bare trunks and branches only at the top. I have never been to Africa, but for some reason they seemed like something one would see there. When the road finally came near a stand of them, I got off the bike to take a look, and found they were much weirder than I had anticipated. Rather than having groups of needles, the limbs were covered in broad, hard spines or leaves. It looked like some sort of early attempt at a pine tree, from back when ferns and succulents ruled the world. I later learned that it was an Araucaria araucana, or pehuen in the local native language.

Impersonating a pine tree

I continued upriver through a sparse forest of these for awhile, then stopped at a dirt road just short of the customs post to begin heading south. I grabbed some water from the side-stream, which I hoped was clean, then felt silly for doing so about five minutes later. This area is littered with springs, some coming right out of the road cut, so I could have clean water almost whenever I wanted. It is also a popular picnic spot, and I passed a dozen or so Argentinian families hanging around their fires, no doubt preparing for an asado.

Lago Aluminé campground pano

The road was only moderately unpleasant up to a broad pass, then deteriorated on the descent to join the east-west road from Zapala to Lago Aluminé. After what seemed like forever averaging less than 10 MPH downhill, I reached the main road, which I misremembered to be paved. Instead, I found wretched high-traffic washboard, busy with weekend traffic. Some drivers had become frustrated enough to create their own side-road in places, as I had seen in the Puna de Atacama, so I used that where I could. Fortunately, the road had been paved for the final descent to Lago Aluminé, so I was able to take it at a decent speed.

Lago Aluminé

I was eventually headed south, but I needed groceries, so I took a side-trip along the north shore of the lake to spend the night in Villa Pehuenia. This was one of the most tourist-y places I had visited in Argentina, with prices to match, but it was worth it to spend the night on the shore of a giant lake, in a forest of ponderosas and araucaria. The campground host was friendly and talkative, telling me what the strange trees were, and showing me what their nuts looked like and how to eat them. I had passed people gathering something on the ride in, and now I knew what it was.

Pehuen nuts are about the size of a finger joint, incredibly fire-resistant, supposedly high in protein, and taste more or less like other pine nuts. They were a main part of the locals’ diet, which made sense as I looked around and saw them everywhere. I picked up a few and tried preparing them in three ways: boiling, roasting on my camp stove, and roasting wrapped in aluminum foil next to a fire. The last approach worked best, though baking or possibly steaming would probably be better. This being Argentina, though, I should have built a fire and put them in an old tin can.

Shrine to Ceferino

It was surprisingly cool in the morning, so I got a late start back around the lake, and was further delayed collecting a bag of araucaria nuts to experiment with later. The road along the Rio Aluminé was dirt, but in relatively good shape and slightly downhill, so I proceeded at a decent pace, then made much better time in the strange island of asphalt roads around the town of Aluminé. I stopped briefly at a shrine to Ceferino, some kind of local saint, then reached town mid-afternoon.

That’s “MAN-tecol”: 2000 calories!

It was hot, and this would be my last civilization for awhile, so I half-napped in the park while waiting for the stores to open. Sitting up and looking around I was surprised to see another bike tourist at the next table over. He turned out to be Francisco (or Pancho), an Argentinian man who had been touring for three years non-stop. He was headed north now, criss-crossing the border and hitting pretty much every pass along the way. Because he was traveling year-round, he had even more gear than I did, including two panniers of winter clothing he hadn’t opened in months. I had hoped to split the 200-ish kilometers between Villa Pehuenia and Paso Tromen into two equal portions, but delays talking to Pancho and finding the ATM in Aluminé (the shiny bank building is buried in a dirt-road residential area), I only made it a few kilometers farther, camping near sunset at a popular spot along the river.

Log cabin on blocks?

I knew I had a long haul the next day, so I managed to get a reasonable start. The river road was paved until it crossed a bridge, then turned to dirt and added regular rollers, which slowed my progress. Still, it was not bad as far as Argentinian dirt roads go, so I was in a decent mood as I made my way south. The road eventually leaves the Aluminé where it bends east, climbing around 1500 feet before dropping a similar amount to the junction with the Paso Tromen road. This could have been ugly, but I found that a road crew was working at that very moment to pave it. The fresh asphalt was incredible, and even the surrounding dirt was freshly-rolled, so the climb was much less of a struggle than I had feared.

Reaching the pine-treed summit, I stopped in one of the Argentinian roadside shelters (for hitchhikers?) to drink some water and have more sausage and bread. A nearby worker, toiling away by himself at some task and apparently bored, came over and offered me water, asking about my trip. He seemed to think it was a bit crazy, preferring to head into the mountains more sensibly by horse. I eventually continued, leaving the construction to be faced with the original washboard dirt for awhile, then finding more good pavement on the descent to the Tromen junction.

The heat was intense at this lower elevation, and the roadside springs I had seen to the north had disappeared. Too impatient to deal with my overused and half-clogged filter, I dipped my bottles straight into the river, despite knowing that it came from a large lake and passed all sorts of livestock. I had become used to drinking some pretty sketchy water, and figured one more time wouldn’t hurt. (I paid with a day of diarrhea 2-3 days later, but… worth it.) A herd of motorcyclists and the odd tourist passed me while I was at the river, but the road seemed pleasantly quiet.

Early Lanin sighting

The rest of the ride went much as I had expected, though with the addition of a discouraging headwind. Lanin first comes into view soon after the junction, its cone divided almost perfectly into white and black halves by the edge of its southeast glacier. Most of the climb is gradual and well-paved, and would have passed easily in the morning before the wind and heat. The pavement gives out at the park boundary, though, leaving 10 kilometers of unpredictable dirt. The first few kilometers were freshly graded, and I though my work was almost done; I stopped for more river water, and thought better of scolding a family collecting araucaria nuts, which is clearly forbidden in the park. The last part, though, had not been improved, and was a sandy washboard that, with the headwind, kept me in my lowest gear despite barely being uphill.

Reaching the park office, I thought I would be a good visitor and register for the climb. He told me that I should come back at 8:00 the next morning (ugh, but okaaay…), that I needed crampons, ice axe, and mountain boots for the obviously-dry hike up the northeast side (yeah, got ’em, whatever), and that I needed a radio. A what?! Yep, I would need a radio to fill out the papers (I should have just lied and asked “what frequency?”), he did not have a loaner like the nice guys at Domuyo, and there were none for rent. Still in “good visitor” mode, I sulked out and rolled over to the neighboring campground, where I paid actual money for no showers, no electricity, and a crappy table. I stewed for awhile, then decided “screw you guys, I’m walking up and down your stupid mountain.”

Human-powered Alpine 4000m peaks FKT

I am hoping to climb the Alps’ 50 prominent 4000-meter peaks as quickly as possible this summer, and have started a fundraiser to help cover the cost of this expensive project. I will write a book about the attempt, available in electronic and print format to backers. If you have already contributed, thank you! If not, please consider doing so and/or telling your friends.

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Volcan Domuyo

Domuyo in the distance

The next peaks on my list were Domuyo and Tromen, two ultra-prominent extinct volcanoes in northern Neuquen, well to the south. I had suffered enough on Argentina’s horrible dirt backroads, so I decided to stick to Ruta National 40 for the commute. If I could count on anything being well-paved, it would be the main north-south highway in the area, and as this is not Chile, the traffic should be both moderate and friendly. Little did I know…

Basalt slot canyon on unpaved RN 40

Things looked good rolling out of Malargüe, and I even got a wicked tailwind on the descent to Bardas Blancas, where I stopped for water and talked to an Australian prospector on a motorcycle. Unfortunately, it turns out that about fifty miles of RN 40 between Bardas Blancas and Barrancas are some of the worst ripio I have encountered. Everywhere vehicles could go fast, it was savage washboard; elsewhere, it was either mounded-up loose gravel or jarring rocks. There was some interesting geology as I entered the volcanic region, including a cool basalt slot canyon, but it was miserable work. I had hoped to get to Chos Malal in two days, but instead had to camp one night in an abandoned building in the middle of the dirt section, then again in Buta Ranquil, a miserable little town east of Tromen.

Mystery endangered cat south of Chos Malal

By the time I descended past the Tromen turnoff on my way into Chos Malal, after fighting a headwind for much of the day, I decided that I would only do Domuyo. I woke up in the dark around 6:00 the next morning, heard the same wind blasting away from the north and east, and decided to take the day off. It would be a headwind on the way to Domuyo, and the Chos Malal campground had decent WiFi and actually hot water. I had hoped to fix my rear brake, but my day off coincided with Carnaval, a holiday falling 38 days before Easter (WTF?) which I had never heard of, but which is important and widely observed in Argentina. Most businesses, including the bike shop, were closed, so I had plenty of time to sit around town in the wind, which kept up all day.

First trees in a long time

The next day dawned calm, and after waiting for the bike shop to open so I could buy new brake pads, I started late for Las Ovejas. Though it starts with a 2000-foot climb, this stretch is actually a pleasant ride, with good pavement and little traffic. Nearing the first of two passes on the way to Andacollo, I was stunned to see… actual pine forests! I had not passed a single naturally-occurring pine tree in the mountains since arriving, and seeing something so proper and familiar was surprisingly moving. Dropping down the other side, I passed some cars stopped at what turned out to be a gushing pipe attached to a road-side spring, then stopped when I saw a car parked next to some volcanic cliffs. Looking around, I quickly spotted climbers at the base of a sport route, and stopped to watch the leader slowly make his way to the anchor. Trees, water, climbers… this was looking good.

Tourism office in Varvarco

From Andacollo, I crossed another pass between two river valleys, then cruised up-river to the town of Las Ovejas. It was only 5:00, and Varvarco was just twenty-some kilometers farther, but the pavement ended, and I did not want to spoil a good day. Instead, I pulled into the municipal campground, where there was no one to collect my money, and bought some perishables for dinner. I then stopped by the tourist office, which had slow WiFi and very friendly staff, who gave me a schematic map of the area and, better still, an up-to-date map of Neuquen showing which roads were paved. It seems like there has been a big, recent push to promote tourism in the region, as the tiny herding towns of Las Ovejas and Varvarco, both on a dead-end road in the middle of nowhere, have shiny, modern tourist information offices.

Is this a transhuman?

The next day, I was immediately thankful that I had not continued to Varvarco, as the road turns to washboard just north of town. A couple of miles in, I passed a grader in the middle of repairing it, and eventually moved over to the freshly-graded side. A truck pulled up next to me while I was stopped for some reason, and a woman in back asked if she could take my picture. I couldn’t see any reason why not, and was surprised when she produced a DSLR with a massive lens. It turns out that Estrella and her fellow passenger were working on an article for a tourist magazine, scheduled to come out in October. I spent ten minutes or so posing for photos, then continued my slow progress north as she sprinted ahead to get some action shots. This is not how I expected to get into a magazine…

Annoying side-canyons

The road improved a bit after Varvarco, where it sees less traffic. Biggar describes a “rough track” leading from Aguas Calientes to the Domuyo trailhead, but there is now a well-graded dirt road heading there from about three kilometers earlier. I ran into the magazine crew there again, posing for more photos, then cranked out the climb to the trailhead around 2500 meters. I was surprised to find some sort of refugio or ranger station, and was just getting ready to inspect it when a buff military guy came out to ask what I was planning. I told him I wanted to climb Domuyo, and after ascertaining that I had warmer clothes than my bike shorts, he had me fill out a liability waiver and emergency contact form, and loaned me a radio (they do that sometimes down here). I asked if I could camp in the parking lot, and he invited me to store my bike in the shed, and sleep on a bed in the infirmary. The three guys stationed there had running water, electricity, and a (shockingly cold) shower; I was living large. I set my alarm for 6:00, cooked my usual glop, and tried to sleep early.

Semi-permanent refugio tents

My alarm got me halfway awake, and the bed collapsing finished the job. I loitered a bit in the luxurious electric light, then started off up the trail just after headlamp time around 7:00. I crossed a completely unnecessary bridge, then continued a surprisingly long ways up the south bank of a river through talus and old moraine, following the best of several cow-paths. I reached the supposed normal base camp at a lagoon and, as promised, I radioed base camp to reassure them that I had not fallen off the trail. I thought I had seen some tents slightly higher, and soon realized they were not tents, but three semi-permanent dome structures: a locked kitchen tent, plus dining and sleeping tents. It turns out that someone (the army? Tourist ministry?) has recently installed a refugio around 3000 meters in which you can pay to sleep. I found my (free) accommodations in the army shelter much more comfortable and sensible.

Upper trail

There are two main trails above the refugios, and I chose the right one, which looked more like an up-trail. Domuyo would be every bit as miserable as Sosneado without the trails, but with them it was actually fairly pleasant, if long. The route climbs a ridge on the mountain’s south side, so it is surrounded by glaciers on both sides. The southeast glacier appears to be the largest, descending far into a valley leading back toward Chos Malal. From the ridge where it finally comes into view, the route climbs what can only be described as class 5 dirt. If it were not for several hundred feet of hand-line, this would be moderately dangerous without snow, as it would be hard to stop a fall. Thanks to the line, it is merely strenuous, since I did not have an ascender and had to half-drag myself up hand over hand. I was grateful to have the mountain to myself, because it would be foolhardy for more than one person to be on the line at once given the amount of debris inevitably kicked loose.

Summit tarn

Above the line, more steep trail leads eventually to the small, shallow crater, home to a small, half-frozen lake. From the summit, I could see other volcanoes in all directions, most of which I could not name. There was of course Tromen back to the southeast, looking brown and uninspiring; I was glad to have skipped it. To the southwest, I could make out two glaciated volcanoes toward the border, one of which may have been Lonquimay. I radioed down to say I was at the summit, hung out for awhile, then headed down.

Class 5 dirt

It was slow going until below the handline, where the trail is low-angle and soft enough to plunge-step through much of the scree. I took the other trail down toward the orange tents, finding that I had guessed correctly on the way up: this was definitely a down-trail. I skipped past the refugio tents, then stopped at the lagoon to grab some water. Four local men passed me as I was there, headed up to the refugio for the night. Evidently the army guys had told them about the crazy gringo out dayhiking the peak.

Wild road home

I hung out talking to the head army guy for awhile, then decided I needed to take off. If I made it to Varvarco that evening, I could get back to Chos Malal the next day. It was downhill and not far, but there were two climbs where I knew I would be pushing my bike. Before I left, the army guy gave me a bag full of apples and pears, a kilogram of polenta, and some crackers. It was a mixed blessing, since calories are always welcome, but I was not looking forward to having an extra five pounds or so in my trailer. The forty or so kilometers back to Varvarco were as grim as I had anticipated, and I got there right around dusk. The municipal camping was once again unguarded, and I even had it to myself. I cooked a late dinner, then almost immediately passed out.

I made it to Las Ovejas by around mid-day, where I bought a bunch of ham and cheese to go with my crackers on the ride back to Chos Malal. It was hot, but I still enjoyed the smooth and quiet pavement, and there was plenty of water along the way. The spring between the two passes was downright crowded, with one guy even pulling up in a pickup to fill several five-gallon jugs from the pipe. This spring seems to be a tourist attraction in its own right.


Epoch of transhumance

I saw several signs warning of an “epoca de transhumancia” (epoch of transhumanism?) on the road between Chos Malal and Varvarco. This had me slightly concerned, but fortunately I was not accosted by any transhumans during my time in the area. The tourist information sign between Las Ovejas and Varvarco was not enlightening, merely saying that “the transhumance is a form of extensive livestock production.” Anyone have a clue?

Volcan Overo and Cerro Sosneado

River ford and plane wreck valley

Volcan Overo was supposedly an easy peak, with the remains of a mining tram and an old road leading most of the way to the summit. I ate breakfast while the army boiled more water in tin cans around a fire, then took off up-river by bike. Since most people go no farther than the old hotel, the road improved dramatically, and I actually enjoyed riding for the first time in awhile. A bridge has been washed out higher up, but the ford was only knee-deep, and without a trailer I could keep my bike dry.

Upper Atuel valley

While it was mostly smooth riding to the old mining facility, the road up the mountain was more than I could handle. It is popular among dirt-bikers, so while most of it is not steep, it is too loose to be easily rideable. I stashed my bike behind one of the mine buildings, put the front quick-release in my pack to deter thieves, then took off walking. I started regretting my decision to walk when the road turned rideable again, but it was probably the right choice. The impatient dirt-bikers had cut a lot of the flat switchbacks, and I was able to do the same on foot.

Peaks north of Overo

It was insanely windy, and I had to stop behind some boulders to put on my down parka and goggles. I reached another cluster of buildings on a flat spot in the early afternoon. One was being used as a refugio, and was still in decent shape, while the rest were missing roofs and doors. I sat out of the wind for awhile, then continued up the road. However, I still had a long traverse to reach the summit, and a long trip back to base camp, so I eventually gave up before the end of the road. Like Tinguiririca, Overo is a large mound surrounded by more impressive neighbors. To the north lie several (unnamed?) peaks with large glaciers, while Cerro Sosneado dominates the view to the south. I checked out the latter on my way home, scouting for the most likely route.

Sosneado approach valley

With no army to disturb me, I got a good night’s sleep and was off by first light the next day. From the refugio, Sosneado’s summit is five miles away and 10,000 feet above — a big climb, but not unreasonable. Biggar’s route description for Sosneado, “easy by the northwest ridge,” is clearly nonsense, since the peak does not have a northwest ridge. However, I approached up the valley to its northwest, and found a few cairns and a couple of camps.

I gave up around here

Above the upper camp, I reached a saddle between the Atuel valley and a buried glacial remnant to the east, then turned up a northern spur of the peak’s west ridge. I found a bit of a use trail at first, but that soon disappeared, and I was left to fight the choss in its original state. I wasted some time trying to climb a large choss-tower before bypassing it to the left, then fought my way farther up the ridge. This appears to be the correct way to the summit, as it joins the west ridge east of an obnoxious and tricky-looking subpeak. However, it is a miserable slog up every kind of unstable choss. Just below the subpeak, I wrestled with a flat rock until it was stable enough that I could sit on it with care, then almost fell asleep on it. I was less than a mile and about 1500 vertical feet from the summit, but I just didn’t have it in me.

On the way back down, I decided to cut my losses and head out the next day. I had plenty of food to make the two-day trek to the plane crash (two days are necessary, because the Rio Atuel can only be crossed in the morning), but I had had enough. I lacked the will for a thigh-deep stream crossing and a long hike with an overnight pack. The wind that had tormented me the whole time finally died down the next morning, and even turned into a bit of a headwind as I neared El Sosneado and pavement. I stopped for a ham sandwich at the gas station, then rode back to Malargüe to recover and fix my bike. I had broken yet another spoke on the awful dirt road, so I figured it was time to have the wheel completely rebuilt.

Termas de Sosneado

Risco Plateado and Sosneado from near Malargüe

Though the Sosneado valley was the wrong direction from Malargüe, I had several reasons to visit. First, it is home to two ultra-prominence peaks, Cerro Sosneado and Risco Plateado, only a few miles apart on opposite sides of the Rio Atuel. Second, Biggar’s guide describes the valley as scenic and a good spot for wildlife-viewing. Third, the abandoned hotel near some hot springs sounded like a great place to camp for a few days. My visit to the Atuel valley turned out to be rewarding, but not for any of these reasons.

It looked like about 110 kilometers to the hotel, the first fifty on pavement, and the rest on dirt for which, according to Biggar, four-wheel drive was “not really necessary.” Since several of the roads he described as requiring it had been moderate by bike, and since I would be heading west and up-valley, presumably with the afternoon upslope winds, I figured it would be a straightforward ride. I rolled out of the nice Malargüe campground late, making it to the gas station town of El Sosneado for a late lunch. The attached convenience store had WiFi, and the other patrons were eating some nice-looking ham sandwiches. I was not smart enough to realize that they had bought them at the butcher’s next door, so I ended up paying too much for a crappy gas station sandwich, a grapefruit soda, and some “Super Roly” alfajores. These were the kind I had bought way back in Potrerillos, and I wanted to see how they tasted without the mold. They also have a ton of calories.

I took my time over lunch, downloading podcasts and taking care of business before an expected 4-5 days away from civilization, then grabbed some water and headed up the road. I soon found that while four-wheel drive might not be necessary, the road was classic high-traffic Argentinian dirt, badly washboarded everywhere it wasn’t too rocky for people to drive quickly. I saw some compact cars, but the drivers had to be slow, careful, and indifferent to their cars’ suffering. Also, unlike everywhere I had been in the Andes farther north, the afternoon wind came from the west. Things were looking grim.

Still windy

I had slogged about half the distance, and was sitting on a rock debating what to do, when a pickup stopped and the driver asked if I needed anything. I said I was fine, and we talked for a bit while his wife looked on from the passenger’s seat, and several small children waved from the back. They turned out to be heading back to Buenos Aires after a family vacation that seemed to involve an insane amount of driving. As he was about to leave, he asked if I wanted some water. I was low, and not looking forward to filtering from the silty river a few hundred yards away, so I said yes. From a cooler in the back, he produced not just water, but a 2-liter bottle of ice and a beer. That made my decision easy: I backtracked a hundred yards to a ruined barn that served as a bit of a windbreak and pitched my tent. Hopefully the wind would die down overnight.

Termas and lunch tent

It did not. I folded my tent in the wind (I’m getting good at this), then fought another thirty kilometers of washboard and headwind to the hotel and hot springs. Both were disappointments: the “hot” springs were lukewarm at best, the hotel contained an unpleasant amount of trash and graffiti, and both were too crowded for my taste. I found a shady spot outside, where I sat to have a random daytime meal and read a bit on my phone. My leisure was interrupted several times by the wind blowing things off of where I had hung them from my bike into a nearby mud puddle.

Hotel has seen better days

I was not loving life at this point, trying to figure out how best to spend the time and food I had invested in this excursion, when an older man approached and asked if I wanted to share his food. If you know me at all, you know that I would never decline such an offer. I then spent most of the afternoon hanging out with a pair of older couples from Malargüe, eating their steak, bread, and home-grown peaches, and exercising my still-pathetic Spanish. As usual, the men did most of the talking, but as they left, one of the women gave me a bag of bread, meat, and cheese for the road.

Biggar mentions a refugio a few kilometers up the road as a base camp for Cerro Sosneado, and I almost passed it by mistake before a group headed downstream clued me in as I was getting water from a stream. The building looked very military, and there were a couple of cars outside, but no one was home, so I threw down my things in one of the rooms and made myself comfortable. While I was in the middle of figuring out how to spend my days in the valley, several vehicles pulled up outside and, a few minutes later, guys in camo opened the door.

This is where things would have started going badly in the States, possibly involving extrajudicial proceedings, but fortunately I am in Argentina, so the soldiers just said “hi” and moved in around me. Representatives of the local mountain regiment were out for a training exercise and, perhaps as a side-hustle, were guiding some tourists to the Uruguayan plain wreck made famous for the subsequent cannibalism by the book (good) and movie (bad) Alive. I had read the book at an impressionable age, so it was exciting to be so close to the events decades later.

These being Argentinians, the first thing they did upon arriving was to make maté. I don’t particularly like the taste, which is something like strong, sour green tea, but I accepted a bit when offered, and have to admit that the system for drinking it is genius. It is sipped through a straw from the bottom of a small cup, so the leaves float on top and do not need to be filtered out. Hot water is poured into the cup a bit at a time from a thermos, so every sip is both hot and freshly brewed. If it gets weak, more leaves can be sprinkled in. I am picky about the temperature of my coffee, so I may have to try this with coffee grounds, though I promise not to be that guy who comes back from Latin America with a maté cup preaching its virtues compared to coffee (caffeine with the other chirality, maybe?).

The Ejercito Argentino are also a bunch of cowboys, so instead of boiling their water over a portable stove as I had done, they gathered wood, built a bonfire, then set a half-dozen old tin cans full of water in it. When one got hot enough, its owner would reach in with a leather glove to pluck it out and pour it into his thermos. A bit later, the really cowboy troops arrived leading a string of mules, which they would take up to the crash site. Not only are they amazingly capable on scree and talus, but mules are much better than humans or vehicles at crossing the area’s treacherous glacial rivers. Talking to one of the troops, I learned that the Rio Atuel crossing on the way to the plane is thigh-deep at mid-morning, the safest time to cross. I was pretty sure I could do it with a stick for balance, but… it was something to think on later.

The tourists seemed to be associated with a Buenos Aires law firm, so they mostly spoke a bit of English. One, a law student, spoke it particularly well and was eager to practice, so I had a translator and English conversation partner for the evening. He invited me to share their meal, which I eagerly accepted, though I was not yet hungry again. At this rate, I would leave the valley with more food than I brought in. Another of the tourists was well-off enough to have taken his daughter skiing at Aspen, which was shocking to me even in pre-inflation Argentina. Apparently I was hanging out with the 1%.

Grilling setup

A bit before dark (between 8:00 and 9:00 in this bizarre time zone), the grill-master took over the fire to begin the asado. They had attached a whole lamb (or kid, possibly lost in translation) and a substantial portion of a cow to a large iron grill, which they strung at an angle slightly downwind of the fire next to one corner of the building. With the grill properly hung, they tied an old cardboard box over the meat. With the back-end of the lamb on top and closest to the fire, and the beef on bottom, everything would cook at the proper rate in this arrangement. However it would take several hours, meaning we would eat around midnight. This was good news for my appetite, but bad news for my intended alpine start.

The finished product

Before the asado, there was a picado, i.e. appetizer, consisting of a large pile of commissary cheese and homemade sausage. There is apparently some rule about when one is allowed to start eating it, so I stared hungrily at it for most of an hour while waiting for others to dig in. Finally, sometime after 11:00, the meat was ready. Rather than grabbing plates and forks, everyone grabbed rolls out of a giant sack, tore them open, and cut off slices of meat with their knives, impressive 5-6″ things sheathed under the belt in the small of the back. Sawing away with my tiny, dull Swiss army knife, I felt even less manly than usual. The meat was delicious, and the supply was regularly refreshed as the grill-master chopped off newly-done parts.

Butchery complete, we wandered off to bed sometime around midnight. The tourists and other soldiers had taken the other rooms, while I was in with the cowboys. They spoke no English, and their Spanish was fast and hard for me to understand, so we did not talk much. While I topped off my increasingly leaky air mattress, they unrolled their blankets, put saddles at one end and boots at the other, and quickly went to sleep. There was no way I would manage the 3000-meter climb of Cerro Sosneado the next day, but fortunately I had other things to do.

Some software reviews

I was a flip phone holdout until late 2017, I have since become utterly dependent upon my smartphone (an iPhone SE, the last of the pocket-sized phones), and all of my international trips would have been somewhere between difficult and impossible without it and a few apps. I am also utterly dependent upon a few pieces of desktop software and web pages.


Maps.me is a convenient way to use OpenStreetMap data offline for both mapping and route-finding. The maps are usually good and reasonably complete, even in small South American towns. The route-finding is quirky, though. Sometimes it will not see roads that clearly exist on the map; other times it will suggest utter nonsense. While it claims to be able to plan routes for cars, bikes, and pedestrians, the car routes tend to be the least nonsensical. It can usually be trusted for short distances within cities, but you should always double-check longer routes.


This has been my go-to offline mapping program for several years. It offers offline USGS/USFS topo maps within the United States, and usable computer-generated “global topos” elsewhere. These topos can be downloaded either for the area around a peak, or for that around an arbitrary GPX track. The app also keeps track of peak-bagging statistics, for people who play that game. However, its offline maps have always been unreliable to download over slow connections, and have recently stopped working for me entirely. I am currently looking into other options, and have high hopes for the CalTopo app currently being developed.


I do all my route-planning with CalTopo, which has a variety of maps and satellite images for the whole world. I used the free version for a long time, but recently became a subscriber, partly to support the project, and partly to eliminate some restrictions on the app. While the iOS app is still a work in progress, I hope to someday use it to replace Peakbagger for my offline topo needs.


Windy has horrible, useless graphics on both its website and mobile app, but I use it anyways because it provides worldwide point forecasts from three different models: the European ECMWF, considered the best in the world; the American GFS, which is also good; and Meteoblue, which focuses on mountains and has higher-resolution models for some ranges (e.g. the Alps). Meteoblue’s summit temperatures seem to be most accurate, while ECMWF may be better at wind speeds. Comparing the three models is a good way to get a rough idea of forecast reliability: the closer they agree, the more you can trust the forecast.

Paso de las Damas

Paso de las Damas monuments

This is probably one of the most obscure “roads” between Argentina and Chile, crossing the Andes from Termas del Flaco to Las Leñas. I believe it is at least occasionally driven, and I saw a bike track here and there, but it sees far more goats than people, and is a seriously rugged endeavor. Though it is only 22 straight-line miles from where I camped at the Rio de las Damas to the ski resort at Las Leñas, and only a thousand-foot climb to the pass, the eastern side of the Andes has a high fractal dimension, so the actual road is 37 miles and several thousand feet of climbing. It also requires several river crossings ranging from calf- to thigh-deep. Crossing from Termas del Flaco to Las Leñas takes two full days by bike, while crossing between the closest major towns of San Fernando and Malargüe takes more like four.

Safe river crossing

I packed up, shuttled my bike across the footbridge in three pieces, then rode back down-valley on the correct side of the river to the base of the pass’s switchbacks. I knew they were steep, so I expected to mostly push my bike, but I did not realize just how steep they were, or how loose. Since the Chilean side of the pass is used mostly by goats, it is churned by hooves rather than packed by wheels. It took me something like three hours to cover the three kilometers to the pass, and I often had to plant my feet, push the bike forward a yard, then lock both brakes to hold it still while I stepped forward to plant my feet again. The goat-herds passed me on their horses and just sort of shook their heads. Gringo loco…

Creepy Argentinian mech

Given the pass’s evident disuse, I was surprised to find several monuments on top, including two metal statue-men holding Argentinian and Chilean flags. The Chilean man looked like a fairly normal vaquero, but the Argentinian one was more like some kind of creepy mech-soldier, with a fearsome expression and gears showing beneath his poncho. I rewarded myself with a snack under his creepy gaze, then waved goodbye to Chile and headed out down the unknown descent into Argentina.

Arroyo del Perdido

It started out easy, with a gradual rolling descent to the Arroyo del Perdido, mostly rideable with only a few sandy parts. Though the road still appeared to be used mostly by livestock, there were some old truck tracks and an occasional bit of bicycle track, which was encouraging. There were several river crossings, of both the Perdido and its side-streams, but I was becoming hardened to such things. I simply pushed my bike and trailer across, stopped to wring out my shoes and socks, then continued on my way. Most were knee-deep, though one had a thigh-deep section that floated my bike and trailer.

After a few hours of cows and horses, I passed some ranchers having lunch by their truck, the first humans I had seen on this side of the pass. They and a couple of motorcycle tourists were the only people I saw until I reached the main road along the Rio las Leñas. I had hoped for a steady, gentle descent, but the road climbs about 600 feet out of the Arroyo del Perdido, then another 1400 feet out of the Arroyo del Burro. Fortunately these climbs were much less severe than the one to the pass, and I was able to ride most of them, but they still added unexpected time and effort to my day.

Cerro Torrecillas

I finally reached the main road behind the impressive Cerro Torrecillas, but while there was a bit more traffic, the road surface was little better. Most of the 2,000-foot descent to Las Leñas was steep, rough dirt, and little fun to ride, though I suppose braking was good exercise for my forearms. When I finally reached pavement just outside Las Leñas, I actually stopped to kiss it. The resort was mostly closed for the summer, but I located a minimal grocery store that had eggs and fresh vegetables, then rode out of town a short distance to camp in a gravel pit away from the highway.

Las Leñas resort

The next day, I headed on down the valley to Ruta 40, then turned south for Malargüe. It felt good to be back in Argentina, where there was less traffic even on a main road like 40 than on some Chilean side-roads, and where many drivers would honk and wave encouragingly as they passed. I had hoped to immediately head north on a side-trip to Cerro Sosneado, but I was low on food, and had broken two more nipples on my rear wheel. I needed to visit a real town before heading back into the wilderness. Malargüe turned out to be a pleasant small city, with a nice municipal campground (only $1.60 per night!), plenty of good outdoor shops, two good supermarkets, and a gas station with solid WiFi.

The guy in the bike store I visited gave me a few replacement nipples for free, and I once again went through the nuisance of installing them on a tubeless wheel. I removed the tire, taking care not to spill any of the sealant, and removed the valve stem. Then I wiped off and carefully peeled back the tubeless rim strip, which was barely sticky to begin with, and even less so after being reapplied. I screwed in the nipples, then stretched the rim strip back into place, glued the end down when it refused to stick, reinserted the valve stem, and carefully put the tire back on. Now I just needed a compressor to reseat the bead. Unfortunately the gas station air hose would not work with a Schrader adapter on a Presta valve with no pressure, so I had to wait for the end of siesta, then wander around town looking for a suitable compressor. I eventually found one at a gomeria, and was back in business with a full larder and a mostly-true wheel.

Volcan Tinguiririca


Volcan Tinguiririca is not the highest peak in its area, nor is it particularly unique, so I am not sure why it made it into Biggar’s book. However, it looked like a convenient next stop on the way south and an easy side-trip, with its base town, Termas del Flaco, a comfortable 250 kilometers from San Jose de Maipo. I figured I could front-load the commute in two days, doing 150 the first day and 100 the second, do the peak in another two, and be on my way. Little did I know…

Things started out well enough. After dealing with a bit more Chilean traffic on route G-25, I turned off on G-27 and found it to be tree-lined and much quieter. The local roadies clearly knew that this was the right way to ride the Maipo Valley, as I saw several headed in both directions. (A note on Chilean road-naming and administrative divisions note: Chile is divided into 16 regions, and the roads are named alphabetically from north to south. Santiago is in the seventh region, so nearby roads are “G” roads. However, the roads in Tierra del Fuego are “Y” roads. Why? Well, it turns out that before 1974, Chile was divided into 25 provinces, and the roads were presumably named before then. There used to be 13 regions, numbered north to south, but in 2007 they added three more, so the numbers are no longer in order. They also skip “XIII,” because bad luck. And you think Fahrenheit temperatures are weird…)

One region down…

Chile would be a great country for traveling by car, as it is narrow east to west, with a single good highway, the Panamericana, stretching north to south through most of its inhabited parts. However, this highway is extremely unpleasant by bike, so one must find parallel side-roads. These can be pleasant, such as the winding foothill road I took through Chilean wine country in the O’Higgins region, but they are still more crowded than Argentinian roads. I stopped at a random empanada joint north of Rancagua and, now that I knew what to look for (al horno, not fried), got a really good one, which I ate sitting about twenty feet from said horno.

Unfortunately, the roads sometimes bottleneck at major cities, so I was forced through Rancagua. The north side was fast and easy, with a separate bike path next to the highway, but the city itself was full of traffic and one-way streets, and I had to get on the highway for about five kilometers to escape the south side. Unlike in Argentina, most towns in this part of Chile do not have city campgrounds, and there is not a lot of open space to camp. Toward the end of the day, I rode about five miles east of Rengo to a large and extremely crowded campground, with no WiFi or power. It had showers, but I was too tired to care.

I made good time to San Fernando the next day, so I stopped at a nice cafe to catch up with the rest of the world. I figured I could ride the last 70 kilometers to Termas del Flaco in a few hours. Unfortunately, the last 60 kilometers of that road are steadily uphill, dirt, and relentlessly washboarded. A man in a truck offered me a lift at about 20 kilometers in, warning that it would take eight hours to ride the rest; he wasn’t far off. I ended up camping along the Rio Tinguiririca near dusk, then riding the rest of the way in the morning.

Sketchy bridge

Termas del Flaco is a popular tourist town with numerous campgrounds and stores, but I had just shopped at the Totus in San Fernando, and still had plenty of daylight left, so I decided to put in some of the miles toward the Rio de las Damas. The glacial Rio Tinguiririca is too big to cross, especially in the afternoon. There is a vehicle bridge several miles short of town, but rather than suffering through the washboard again, I asked around town and was eventually pointed to a much closer footbridge. This turned out to be a shoulder-wide suspension bridge made of cables and what looked like spare lumber, more tacked together than engineered. I wrestled my bike down the steep cowpath to the bridge, then had to take the bike, trailer, and bag across in three separate, swaying trips. I ended up in someone’s yard on the other side, and the owner, who had been watching my cursing progress the whole time, pointed me to another cowpath leading back to the road. Finally on the correct side of the river, I put in a few more miles, then found a flat place to camp. I scrolled around the map a bit before I went to sleep, and discovered that my road led back into Argentina via the Paso de las Damas. I had put in a lot of work to reach this point, and was sick of Chilean traffic, so it seemed tempting.

Second crossing

There is some sort of hydroelectric project in the upper Tinguiririca valley, so the road is kept in good shape, yet sees little enough traffic that it is not washboarded. However it is steep, and includes one unlit tunnel, so I had a slow climb. It does not exactly correspond to any map I saw, as it crosses back to the north side of the river on a large culvert, then stays there up to the Rio de las Damas. The road builders had gotten lazy after the first culvert, so I had to cross one calf-deep side-stream along the way. I was new to the fording-with-bike game, so I stupidly tried to hop across with my bike while staying dry, then ended up fording the thing four times (two round-trips) to carry my trailer and bag over, each time putting some of the heavy stuff in the bag into my backpack to make it light enough for the final trip.

Not gonna cross that

I finally reached the base of the Paso de las Damas, but it was on the other side of the river, and the vehicle ford was way too fast and deep to be safe at this time of day. Frustrated, I continued up the road’s left fork, where I was rewarded by (1) a flat spot next to the river to camp, and (2) a footbridge associated with some sort of river monitoring dam. It was only early afternoon, but it would be more efficient to camp two nights at my bike than to backpack a few miles up-valley, so I called it a day.

Paso de las Damas

It seemed like a quiet, dead-end spot, but I had a surprising number of visitors. First, the two owners of the hundred or so goats I had seen came by on the other side of the river, tying their horses to the local excavator before crossing the bridge to chat. I envied their horses, which were a help rather than a hindrance in crossing the area’s rivers. Later, right as I was about to eat dinner, an official-looking truck drove up. Oh, crap… Fortunately this is South America, so while one guy crossed the bridge to the excavator, the other just told me I had to move my tent a bit because la machina would be coming through.

Poorly-chosen campsite

I had been listening to the rocks rolling beneath the river, and evidently it was time for one of the dam’s regular cleanings (hence the permanently-stationed excavator). It was impressive to watch: the guy drove the tracked vehicle straight into the river, then rapidly slung bucket after bucket of rocks and gravel out onto the bank, tipping the bucket slightly to empty out the water beforehand. He was clearly good at his job. Once enough rocks had been removed this way, he drove up onto the bank to pull out more from another spot. Finally he crossed the river, driving through my campsite a few feet from my recently-moved tent, and emptied sand out of some kind of catch, adding it to one of the nearby piles. Finally, around dusk, he parked la machina on the other side of the river and they left. Hoping this was not a daily occurrence, I moved my tent back in place and went to sleep.

Cerro Seler and glaciers NE

It was well past time to climb another peak. Since the Peakbagger app’s offline maps have stopped working, I had only a rough map of the area, and Tinguiririca is a large, complex thing whose summit is hidden from the surrounding valleys, but I had an adequate route description, and did not expect a mound-y volcano to give me any trouble. I boulder-hopped up to a flat plain on the Rio de las Damas, then took off up a side-valley toward where I thought the summit should be. I was feeling slower than expected for the altitude, but it was good to be off the bike for a change. While I had seen bits of faint trail and horse manure in the valley, there were no human signs farther up.

Summit glacier

I eventually reached a broad choss-ridge, which I followed to the summit plateau, passing a couple of small cliff bands to one side or the other. Tinguiririca’s summit is a vast plateau with a large, flat glacier surrounded by several bumps. Fortunately I had enough of a map to tell me which was the highest, because it is impossible to tell from below, and all of them are miserable piles of loose scree. The glacier was the expected penitente mess, but I was used to that, and its surface was gritty enough that I crossed easily in trail runners. I had a bit more trouble crossing the messed-up glacial remnant at the base of the summit, and no fun at all on the steep, loose stuff above, but it proved worth the effort.

Torres del Brujo (l) and Seler (r)

Tinguiririca’s current crater is northwest of the summit, and filled with penitentes. From a highpoint near the north end of the summit plateau, the large glacier drains to the south. Though it is mostly just a colorful mound, it is surrounded by more precipitous peaks, including the higher Cerro Seler to the northwest, and (I think) the Torres del Brujo to the north. I looked them up online later, and found that they are where Real Men go to climb when they visit the area. Weirdly for the Andes, they are made of good granite instead of volcanic choss. Unfortunately, I do not know whether they have any routes that I could climb.

Summit gawping complete, I retraced my route, reaching my tent in the late afternoon and happily not finding it crushed by la machina. I decided to head over the pass in the morning, then watched the sunset and settled in for the night.